Frequently Asked Questions

Here are some common questions about CBD.

What is CBD?

CBD is the abbreviation for Cannabidiol, one of the resinous molecules known as phytocannabinoids, found in the flowers, leaves and stems of the cannabis sativa plant. CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid and one of the two major cannabinoids, the other being THC, which does have psychoactive properties. 

CBD is found in greater abundance in the hemp variety of cannabis sativa, which has a low THC concentration (below 0.3% as a legal standard). There are over 100 identified phytocannabinoids in the cannabis sativa plant.

How is CBD Oil Made?

CBD oil is made by extracting the compounds from the flowers and leaves of the hemp plant. There are various methods of extraction that can be used: however, the top two are CO2 and Ethanol Extraction. CO2 Extraction requires expensive equipment: however, it has an advantage of being able to selectively extract specific compounds and allows for purity of the cannabinoids and flavor (terpenes) in the refined CBD oil.

Ethanol Extraction involves heating the material to achieve decarboxylation and then soaking the plant material in ethanol for a period of time. Then the liquid is filtered from the material and left in the open and allowed to evaporate. One of the advantages to this method is it does produce a high volume of full spectrum hemp extract.

What Other Ingredients are in CBD Oil?

CBD oil has the natural compounds present in the flowers and leaves of the hemp plant that include cannabinoids, terpenes, fatty acids and flavonoids. The actual compound profile depends on the processing. The plant material can be refined/processed to have the full-spectrum of plant compounds, a broad-spectrum of plant compounds with the THC removed or an isolate that is up to 99% pure CBD.

Many tinctures and other CBD products also have carrier oils added to them after processing. CBD oils that do not have carrier oils are also available from processors for wholesale and product development purposes.

What is the Endocannabinoid System?

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a vast biological regulatory system of receptors on cells found in the brain, organs, tissues muscles, skeletal and immune systems of human and all mammalian bodies. This regulatory system plays various unique roles in basic physiological systems that include: immune response, cardiovascular function, respiration, metabolism, cognition, pain response, and sleep cycles.

The body naturally produces its own cannabinoids that interact with the ECS, and these are called endocannabinoids. Plant based cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids) also interact with the endocannabinoid system similarly, in both direct and indirect ways.

What is Decarboxylation?

Decarboxylation, often referred to as decarbing, is the process of heating the plant material for a period of time at approximately 230°F. The result is the activation of the CBD to maximize the potency and bioavailability of the cannabinoid and is often preformed either before or after the extraction process.

What is Winterization?

Winterization is essentially an alcohol wash of the cannabis/hemp material and then freezing it. This helps to separate the pure CBD from all residual compounds like lipids, waxes and starches.

Why Does CBD Crystallize?

At the molecular level the more OH groups (oxygen bonded to hydrogen) present in a molecule the more it will exhibit solid characteristics. For instance CBD has two OH groups compared to THC, which has only one. If, for instance, both of these compounds were together under the correct level of purity and temperature, CBD would be more likely to crystallize or reform crystals than THC. This, of course, would be subject to the actual ratio of concentration.

The degree of concentration is important when it comes to crystallization. The standard is that CBD distillate must be at least 80% purity to crystallize on it’s own. If you experience that, then it means that your CBD is most likely above 85%. Not necessarily a negative in terms of purity!

What Other Ingredients Are In CBD Oil?

CBD oil has the natural compounds present in the flowers and leaves of the hemp plant that include cannabinoids, terpenes, fatty acids and flavonoids. The actual compound profile depends on the processing. The plant material can be refined/processed to have the full-spectrum of plant compounds, a broad-spectrum of plant compounds with the THC removed or an isolate that is up to 99% pure CBD.

Many tinctures and other CBD products also have carrier oils added to them after processing. CBD oils that do not have carrier oils are also available from processors for wholesale and product development purposes.

Why is Bioavailability Important?

Bioavailability is the degree to which your body can absorb and use ingested compounds and drugs. The method and route of administration, rate of metabolism, lipid solubility and binding proteins affect absorption. These factors play into the level of absorption and efficacy when it comes to ingesting CBD.

CBD oil is NOT water-soluble and therefore has a somewhat limited bioavailability when ingested: however, a recently published Pharmacokinetic Study shows how a colloidal drop delivery system, VESIsorb ® dramatically increases absorption and efficacy of CBD. This is an important development for increased bioavailability of CBD and CBD infused products.

Is CBD Legal?

Yes. CBD is federally legal in the United States ONLY if the THC content is below 0.3%. Some states have various buying restrictions and you need to check with each particular state to confirm their laws pertaining to CBD.

What is Broad Spectrum CBD & How Is It Different From Full Spectrum CBD?

Broad spectrum CBD oil contains CBD, terpenes and non-detectable amounts of THC. THC mitigation (bringing THC to non-detectable levels) can be reached by various methods, Chromatography, which requires special equipment, being the most popular. Non-Detectable THC oils are desirable for those consumers that must avoid testing positive for THC, as well as children and the elderly.


Full Spectrum CBD oil is processed from THC compliant hemp (below 0.3% THC) and contains the full spectrum of cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids and other beneficial plant compounds.

What is Full Sprectrum CBD?

Full spectrum CBD oil is THC compliant oil (below 0.3% THC) that is heavy with minor cannabinoids such as CBDV and THCV along with the other naturally occurring terpenes, flavonoids, and other beneficial molecules. Full-Spectrum CBD oil delivers the synergistic benefit of these compounds, and is known as ‘the entourage effect’.

Broad Spectrum CBD has remediated the THC to a non-detectable level and therefore is differentiated from the Full-Spectrum ‘entourage effect’.

What is THC Free CBD Oil?

THC Free CBD Oil is actually what is known as NDTHC, Non-Detectable THC Oil.

The CBD Oil has gone through a THC remediation process like chromatography or other remediation methods that bring the oil to a non-detectable level of THC.

What is the Difference Between Non-Detectable & THC Compliant?

THC Compliant is the emerging industry standard name for Full-Spectrum Oils that are below the legal 0.3% THC Content.

Non-Detectable THC Oils (NDTHC) is the emerging industry standard name for Broad-Spectrum CBD oil.

What Are Cannabis Terpenes and What Do They Do?

Cannabis Terpenes or Hemp Terpenes are a class of around 140 aromatic organic hydrocarbons found in the cannabis and hemp plant. Although they are the source of the distinct aroma and flavor of the plant, they also play an important role of protecting the plant from fungus, insects, bacteria and other environmental attacks.


Terpenes are part of the beneficial natural cannabinoid synergy of the cannabis and hemp plant. Terpenes can be added to a variety of products to create unique scents, flavors, and overall experiences.

What Is CBD Isolate?

CBD isolate is a crystalline solid or powder that contains 99% pure CBD. A traditional extraction process removes all the active compounds from the cannabis plant, followed by a refinement process that strips away all other phytocannabinoids, including THC, and any plant matter, leaving behind nothing but the CBD chemical compound in its purest form.

How Do You Make CBD Oil from Isolate Powder?

CBD oil can be made from isolate powder by combining it with a carrier oil like MCT oil, grapeseed oil or olive oil. MCT oil is the most popular carrier oil used for formulating CBD oil from isolate.

How Do You Use CBD Isolate?

Since CBD isolate is a powder it can be used in a variety of ways. You can consume or smoke the powder.

The powder also turns to oil when heated and you can add it to a carrier oil (MCT, Hempseed, Olive Oil, etc) to make a tincture or topical. It is also added to creams, balms and other cosmetics.

This means CBD product developers and brands can use +99% Pure CBD Isolate Powder in any kind of products from edibles to topicals, tinctures and more…

How Is Water Soluble CBD Made?

In order for CBD to become water soluble, it must be broken into very small particles, or nanoparticles and then delivered with a lipid delivery system. This requires combining with an emulsifier or using a self-emulsifying system such as VESIsorb Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) which is actually a naturally self-assembling colloidal delivery system.

What is the Difference Between CBD & CBG?

CBG is often referred to as ‘The Mother’ because it is the acidic precursor to all critical cannabinoids, including CBD (CBDA), THC (THCA) and CBC (CBCA). In other words CBG is the metabolic source of the most dominant phytocannabinoids, including CBD.

What is CBN?

CBN (Cannabinol) is a cannabinoid that is produced from the degradation of THC when the harvested plant is subjected to high temperatures (sunlight) and exposed to air (oxygen). This occurs over time as the THC natural degrades into CBN. Many of the properties of THC are attributed to CBN: however, the psychoactive effects of CBN are negligible (about 1/10th).

What is CBC?

CBC (cannabichromene) is one of the most abundant cannabinoids found in the hemp plant. CBC, like CBD and THC, also stems from the precursor CBGA. It converts through the enzyme process to CBCA and through decarboxylation, either over time or quickly, if exposed to heat; it will lose a molecule of CO2 and become CBC. CBC also shows promise for therapeutic benefits similar to CBD. CBC is also non-psychoactive.

What is CBDV?

CBDV (cannabidivarin) has a molecular structure similar to CBD and it is also non-psychoactive. It is found in greater abundance in indica strains of the plant or low THC strains. Varins have two less carbon atoms than their non-varin counterparts. CBDV is one of the varin analogs of cannabinoids (designated with a V after the name) and are just slightly different versions of their siblings, meaning CBDV will have the same or similar properties to CBD: however, there may be a shorter duration of effect or differences in dosage response.

What is THCV?

Although THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) is similar to THC there are several key differences. The main difference is the origin within the plant. THCV has a different parent cannabinoid, known as CBGVA (cannabigerovarin acid), than THC, CBD and others. Like THC, THCV is psychoactive, however, the effects wear off faster.

How Do You Consume Water Dissolvable CBD?

Water Dissolvable CBD, or water soluble CBD, can be consumed by mixing in beverages, foods, or as a tincture. In addition water-soluble CBD oil can be crafted into any edible products like gummies, candy, chocolate and any other innovative edible product recipe.

What Is the Difference Between Hemp Flower & Hemp Biomass?

Hemp flower is the dried flower or bud of the hemp plant that has been removed from the stalk and contains a very minimum amount of stems. Biomass is the dried hemp plant material that includes stalks, leaves, flower/buds, and seeds that have been harvested.

What Is The Benefit Of Hand Harvested/ Hand Dried Hemp Vs. Machine Harvested/ Dried Hemp?

Hand harvested/dried hemp is generally employed for smaller farms or plots of land. The plants are cut at 2 to 3 cm above the soil and left on the ground to dry. Hand harvesting and drying means you can have more control over the process.

For large hemp farms, mechanical harvesting has become more common and adapted cutters or cutter-binders are used. The mechanical process can be used to separate the harvest for a different form of processing. The upper part of the plant with the leaves can be separated and collected for cold pressing and the lower part can be used for fiber or other uses and can be left on the field.

What Are The Different Stages Of CBD Crude Oil?

First the Crude oil is extracted from the dried hemp material biomass that includes the flowers, leaves, stalks and seeds. The two most common extraction processes are ethanol solvent or CO2 extraction to pull the CBD and other phytocannabinoids and compounds from the plant material.

The CBD crude oil can then be refined further by what is called winterization, basically an alcohol wash and then it is frozen. This process removes the organic plant compounds like lipids, waxes and chlorophyll. The result is a pure, potent, transparent distillate.

What Is A COA?

A COA is a Certificate Of Analysis. This is a document issued by an accredited laboratory that includes a full composition of the product, including: list of cannabinoids, microbiological levels, terpenes and any possible contaminants, which could include pesticides, solvent residue or heavy metals.

Why Are COAs Important?

A COA is an assurance to your customer that your product is of the highest quality. It goes beyond the label in that it breaks down the full composition of your product by an accredited third party laboratory and it reassures your customer that you are a law abiding and reliable manufacturer.


Worldwide CBD Distribution & Partnerships

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